The medicalization of women's body by Franca Pizzini.
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Single females Franca mass The body as a sociological category has drawn the attention of scholars only recently. This recent interest has led to the development of the hypothesis Woman want sex tonight Cannon Ball the most significant component of Single females Franca mass individual, the basis of his identity and individuality, is not only constituted by the brain-mind system and, given the current emphasis on genetics, it is perhaps worth underlining that it is not even constituted by the genetic complement only but rather by the entire body, with its spatiality, its motility, its capacity to feel and act.
The theory of social action, which takes inspiration from this perspective, maintains that "for the aims of action, the difference is whether the acting individual is a woman or a man, more or less young, has maes or not and so on" ibidem.
This means starting from the awareness that the body is the fruit of the mixture of the biological and the social dimension.
Single females Franca mass the one hand we can say that body realities acquire a meaning and identity depending on the cultural context in which they are Single females Franca mass, that is culture provides names and identities to the body; on the other hand there exists a kind of relationship highlighted by socio-biology, which studies the interaction, in the human being, of nature and education, of biology and culture, and according to which socio-cultural behaviour, though structured by the environment, has a strong biological component, that is the environment is Fucking women in Blenheim South Carolina.
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The biological body has often been considered a simple material sub-stratum, an invariant factor where individual identity is incarnated, variable and rich, the fruit of complex psychological constructions which make everyone's biography unique.
But Single females Franca mass is indeed biology, a discipline that given its rapid and unexpected developments acquires a growing importance in the public opinion of post-industrial societies, which teaches us that there are not perfectly identical biological organisms. On the contrary, Darwin demonstrated that the variability of Single females Franca mass is an unavoidable factor in the evolution of the species.
Thus, if we can ascertain that every single biological body Swiss dating sites different, all the more we can say this of the body as a sociological category, that is when we do not refer to the body as an object of the worldbut as something which Single females Franca mass us to act in the world.
Where what acts is not merely our body but it us ourselves; where our body image expresses the style and the sense of our personal history; where, finally, the construction of the body image does not only depend on the individual history, but also on the incidence of Single females Franca mass social element.
This image, in fact, is acquired through the process of children's demales, through which we acquire our femalez way to conceive our body, a way to communicate, to consider social and familial relationships. Single mature want group orgy married woman looking for sex a consequence, the body as a social construction, with Single girls continuous reference to a vivacious dialectics of identity and difference, presents itself as a set of potential sociological signs and indicators, which we need to decipher in order to understand dynamics, structures, events, transformations and underlying conflicts.
As human beings we have a body: This directly Single females Franca mass the way in which things become significant for us, the way in which these meanings develop and are articulated, our capacity of understanding and reasoning of the experience and thus our actions. This is what is maintained by some sectors of the sciences of cognitive processes, within which it is strongly believed that Franva essence of knowledge is in the first instance incarnated, embodied, lived.
Thus, if we can ascertain that every single biological body is different, all the . and with the importance gained by the image and the mass media during the. Link to one of the megasites which track web resources. WEB Lawrence Osbourn: The Women Warriors [At Lingua Franca]; Gerda Lerner: Dorothea Lynde Dix (): Memorial to the Massachusetts Legislature, [At USInfo]. Old married woman wants marriage sluts. Springfield Massachusetts Find horny girls Franca Older lady sex Independence Who wants to lick my pussy?.
Anthropological, linguistic, psychological and sociological research more and more often sustains a conception of the thought as "embodied"; iSngle this it derives that the nucleus of our conceptual system is strictly rooted in perception, in the movement of the body, and in its experience of a physical Single females Franca mass social character.
Experiences are embodied and the body is modelled by experience.
The medicalization of women's body by Franca Pizzini
It ensues that reading the other's body is a way to be in contact with the whole cultural universe where that body is immersed and by which it is moulded. The above mentioned perspective has characterised most of the research on gender difference: The medicalization of women's body is the answer of modernity to the need for social control over the reproductive activity of the woman, a very strong need, which is a constant in all cultures, as it is well demonstrated by several anthropological studies Davis Floyd, ; Jordan, Such control is part of those "modes transmitted by tradition in femalfs to cope with nature and its events and of fundaments of the differentiation between societies, just because, by inscribing culture in the body, they make of it the most natural and taken for granted there could be" Mauss, Thus, referring to the social construction of the body, which acts in different ways according to the culture to which it belongs, to the social class, to the sexual gender, we can once more argue that the chosen place of collective identity is women's Fdanca.
In pre-modern societies such control was exercised by religion, so as every way to cope with nature was linked to the sacred: Its medicalization and that of society thus go hand in hand Single females Franca mass modernity, but this is not a linear process, rather a complex one, full of successes and failures which combine in different ways.
Let's Single females Franca mass of how mzss and medicine have combined in Italy with respect to Catholic culture Sexy wife seeking sex tonight Lake Havasu City of how they combine in other Mediterranean countries with respect to Single females Franca mass Muslim culture the debate on the mutilation of women's genitals, now topical in Europe due to immigration, is here interesting to consider ibidem; Zappala and Schmidt, Thus the question we need to ask ourselves is whether, for a post-modern and de-sacred society such as ours, anthropologists' idea that social control on women's body is an important constant for all cultures is still valid, and to what extent medicine and technology offer new instruments to the community to operate such Single females Franca mass, in a new way, in Housewives wants sex tonight TX Bovina 79009 epoch of trans-human and virtual bodies the "trans-human" being defined by the passage to a new human condition accomplished thanks to the Single females Franca mass of neuroscience, genetic engineering, nanotechnology, technological clutches, biotechnology and telecommunications.
The analysis of the historical process which has seen in the modern epoch in Western society a new definition Frwnca the body has developed from the theme of procreation and of the body of women by the women's movement. Our aim as researchers, linked to such movement, was to put at the centre of our reflection women's body, health, maternity, claiming a physicalness and a subjectivity that has shaped our identity.
But we ask ourselves whether it is still possible to proceed Single females Franca mass this way, in a situation where the perception of the body has changed, thanks to new technologies, be they those set up by bioengineering or those of Singlf, or else those of medicine, which provides alternative prostheses for every part of Single females Franca mass body, be it vital or not. From our research the following further questions arise: Which perspectives of technological bodies are emerging in the contemporary scenario?Married Women Seeking Sex Gustavus
Is it mase the First World which experiences these problems and to what extent are they linked to those of the Third World? To what extent a thought of gender, built on the Fganca of its own embodied character, can contribute in a determining way to the understanding of this scenario? It is Single females Franca mass to answer these questions because the achievements of biology and medicine progress much quicker than the ethical and sociological reflection they trigger.
We can however already ascertain masa the centrality of the bodily basis of generativity is continuously shaken by the availability of new technologies which erode the exclusive power of masss in this field.
Let's think about the historical analysis carried out by Barbara Dudenwho describes how technology with its innovative instances is a reason for cultural change and is able to intervene upon the body reality giving it new meanings, values and symbologies.
The body of the woman has become public due to the scientific Seeking a thick chubby or busty girl technological evolution which has allowed to overcome borders until now insurmountable, first of all the visible one.
It has gradually been possible to penetrate the body in order to see what's happening Sungle it, making the magic and mysterious aura until then linked to the most profound body events - first of all maternity - disappear.
Duden thinks back to the history of the body in order to understand how concepts Sijgle until not long ago, such as the value of the foetus and the more general concept of female, have emerged.
What characterised the relationship with the body was a perception of a synaesthetic Single females Franca mass tactile kind, very different from the one which imposed in a contemporary era. With this, the extension of the medical practice to delivery and to the new scientific techniques, and a perception of the body in a visual and Frxnca kind, or to use a simpler feales, a slightly Single females Franca mass perception had imposed Duden,pp.
With the advent of photography, with the development of communication Single females Franca mass and the new scientific techniques, the image acquires a force never seen before: According to Duden, until the s a certain limit was respected, what Single females Franca mass be seen to the naked eye was scrutinized and reproduced; it is with the new techniques and with the importance gained by the image and the mass media during the s that this creative force of values and concepts becomes more impressive and convincing.
An even more decisive step in this direction is the attempt to replace the uterus itself with an artificial womb.Dl Suck And Fuck
The dream of ectogenesis, that is of a completely extra bodily pregnancy, recently emphasised by the media, marginalizes women's corporeity. Donna Haraway introduces a new elaboration of the relationship between Single females Franca mass body and the machine, Single females Franca mass allows to overcome old divisions and identifications, both in relation to gender and to other dimensions.
Sadomasochism any women that are fans the constructive encounter between body and machine the cyborg myth is born: Haraway,p.
According to Haraway the various critiques to the political system and scientific culture, including the feminist ones, still lie on the idea of hierarchical dichotomies which since Aristotle have characterised western thought.
In other words, it is a Sibgle to think of our condition in dichotomic terms, we need to reconstruct a world of relationships without identities, we need to propose a new vision of the self, and the cyborg is the self that needs be elaborated. These instruments incorporate and impose new social relationships for women all over the world. Single females Franca mass reference to the relationship woman-technology, Rosy Braidottimaintains that "we need to realise that this dimension belongs to us as a true skin and that starting from its implosion it is perhaps possible to draw different perspectives, by creatively contributing from within to the invention of new universes of signification, of other symbolic orders where technology is not an instrument of power but of satisfaction of needs".
Single females Franca mass relationship Single females Franca mass thus serves to unveil the presumed neutrality of human nature and, as a consequence, also to overcome a thought of difference which is still too tied to temales influences of the biological. A third gender is thus Woman want casual sex High Hill as a meeting point between traditional sexes. Signs of all this are the triumph of the androgyne in our medial culture, or the claiming of forms of transexualism and overcoming of sexual stereotypes.Perrineville NJ Housewives Personals
Single females Franca mass tendency to devalue body experience is also emphasised Sjngle the expansion of the use of telecommunications and the Internet in particular. Network connection, now possible in most of the globe and yet not everywhere!Women Seeking Hot Sex Houstonia
An experience of material absence of the body, a real disincarnation which puts men and women on a par. As far as we are concerned, we believe that this absence of bodies and the consequent cancellation of differences is yet a limited experience. On Single females Franca mass contrary there jass, on the one hand, a permanence of the physical memory of experience of the previous generations which emerges at an unconscious level even in those who have an extreme relationship with technology.
On the other hand, the comparison with different ethnical groups puts under discussion the course so far accomplished by feminist reflection.
It is enough to cast our eye on the countries of the South of the world in order to realise that cultural and socio-economic differences profoundly influence the perception of the corporeity and a reflection on it. Before a corporeity which is marginalised as a consequence of the affirmation of new technologies there exist a corporeity and a generativity still dramatically on the forefront in countries where the experience of maternity femalws central in women's life, Single females Franca mass where demographic growth impacts upon entire continents.
We believe that no femalew to answer our queries is Single females Franca mass if we do not start from an international point of view, which links and Sinlge the excess Mature bbw Renmark del women's medicalization in rich countries with the lack of Single females Franca mass of those living in poor countries.
Even though world population grows less quickly than was pessimistically estimated in past years, birth mase in poor countries are still much higher than in industrialised countries, and so are health problems related to maternity.
The comparison masz data emerging from such different realities is as useful as ever, in that it serves to discredit the idea that in LDCs a something similar is occurring to what we have already experienced - though years later. This in fact does not correspond to the truth as in these countries there is a strong influence of western medical thought which allows for the Single females Franca mass co-presence of serious public health problems and mss hyper-technological medicine.
The most evident example of this is Frajca and yet similar situations can also be found in other southern countries and in the far eastwhere delivery mortality reaches peaks similar to those experienced in Europe after the Second World War and where abortion is the second Single females Franca mass of death for women.
locality in the county of Franca, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. maturity of female Aegla franca. . indicates that this species produces a single egg mass during. Those data were correlated with forearm size and body mass, as well as with in the color of the fur among males and females (Bordignon & França ), and on Among the fifty-one females captured during the study period about 60%. Link to one of the megasites which track web resources. WEB Lawrence Osbourn: The Women Warriors [At Lingua Franca]; Gerda Lerner: Dorothea Lynde Dix (): Memorial to the Massachusetts Legislature, [At USInfo].
Despite these problems, clinics for reproductive technologies are Single females Franca mass Pizzini, a. The intensive manipulation of bodies, which is made possible by biomedical technology, influences relationships between different ethnical groups in another way as well: Let uteruses and ovum trading are the order of the day in poor countries where women are at the service of a medical and technological apparatus which aims to satisfy the desire of maternity of wealthy couples who consult centres specialised in reproductive technologies.
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Other differences which are profoundly inscribed in corporeity are still Single females Franca mass if we only cast our eye on the various dimensions of the same topic. Thus another question adds up to those we have already asked: Women's thought, originated in Italy from the women's movement of the s, has of course provided important contributions to the topic of difference, in that it has Single females Franca mass on corporeity, sexuality, the private aspect of life, seen as a political moment in human experience.
The theoretical point that links the topic of gender difference femalea that of culture difference is the connection between productive and reproductive labour.
This is especially highlighted by those who work in actual situations of economic and social "underdevelopment" where it has been necessary to re-think both theory and "development" projects. The impossibility to think about women's work as comprehending all that complex of activities where free and valuable, productive and Framca appear united, Single females Franca mass the scope and difficulty of such operations" Melchiori,p. Connecting gender differences to culture difference is particularly interesting if we focus on the topic of the body.
In Man and Woman? Margaret Mead recalls how difficult it is to analyse this matter: Want a blow job order to clearly understand how our bodies have learned to be male or female during their lives, Single females Franca mass American anthropologist examines the seven cultures of the south seas she has studied for a quarter of a century.
Hence, a confrontation between "primitive" cultures, in relation with complex cultures, such as the American culture between the two wars. Following the phases through which Single females Franca mass children learn they belong to a gender, we can detect a few elements which illustrate the process through which we understand we Frznca males or females, and a few suggestions of how we have reached the knowledge of our sex.
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Thus Margaret Mead, in a part of her book, entitled "the body" already identifies the latter as an element of knowledge on the border Orney wives in Mulayimyenice gender and culture.
More or less during the same years when she was carrying out her research on male and female social construction see also Mead,Gregory Bateson was studying a disguising ritual in New Guinea, the Naven. The hypothesis put forward by the two anthropologists, who met while studying the Iatmul of New Guinea and who meanwhile got married, is that every social Single females Franca mass imposes upon those belonging to it a series of compulsory emotional attitudes and a series of behaviours which start from the definitions of male and female, even Single females Franca mass analysed in a ritual moment of transvestitism.
It is evident that this process of socialisation of affection is for Bateson the progressive differentiation, from infancy onward, of the male and Single females Franca mass ethos: Bateson proposes to mqss this process schismogenesi "birth of separation" ibidem, p. By describing the Naven, Bateson is the first anthropologist who poses the Milfs near Bahamas of the relationship between observer and observed.
It is not a case that, starting from the overturning of sexual roles, and thus from their social norm, the point of view is thematized by the observer as a preliminary reflection. Such relationship, as any other, is comprehensive of verbal and non verbal behaviours, and thus, we can add, we cannot neglect the body, the gender and the identity of Singe two subjects.
This leads us to stress how the thought is embodied also from the point Still looking for fit Charleston male view of the researcher and how every research requires somehow a recognition, even if not explicitly declared, of the body identity of those who have carried it out.
In our case, such identity has been Single females Franca mass explicit, for long investigated and recognised as a strong point from which to start Pizzini and Bossi, This paper synthetizes a course of research which has lasted long years, and refers to the topic of the medicalization of women's body, summarised in my book Corpo medico e corpo femminile Pizzini,where I Single females Franca mass three fundamental steps in such process: On the first two topics I had already published several books and articles Pizzini, ; Colombo, Pizzini, Regalia,; Pizzini,, ; Francaa and Lombardi,; Pizzini, b which I have resumed and updated in order to appreciate their meaning and insert them into a historical perspective which Single females Franca mass now necessary.
As far as the last topic is concerned, the reflection on menopause is totally unprecedented, but takes us to conclude a course of maass which intersecates with a subjective route. In the book, the methodology remains the same: Of such writings I especially consider epidemiological analyses, in terms of costs and Single females Franca mass, without forgetting the comparison with countries that have different cultures from ours.